Evaluation of Key Spatiotemporal Learners for Print Track Anomaly Classification Using Melt Pool Image Streams
Cherif, L.; Safdar, M.; Lamouche, G.; Wanjara, P.; Paul, P.; Wood, G.; Zimmermann, M.; Hannesen, F.; Zhao, Y.F. (2023). Evaluation of Key Spatiotemporal Learners for Print Track Anomaly Classification Using Melt Pool Image Streams. Preprints of the 22nd IFAC World Congress.
Recent applications of machine learning in metal additive manufacturing (MAM) have demonstrated significant potential in addressing critical barriers to the widespread adoption of MAM technology. Recent research in this field emphasizes the importance of utilizing melt pool signatures for real-time defect prediction. While high-quality melt pool image data holds the promise of enabling precise predictions, there has been limited exploration into the utilization of cutting-edge spatiotemporal models that can harness the inherent transient and sequential characteristics of the additive manufacturing process. This research introduces and puts into practice some of the leading deep spatiotemporal learning models that can be adapted for the classification of melt pool image streams originating from various materials, systems, and applications. Specifically, it investigates two-stream networks comprising spatial and temporal streams, a recurrent spatial network, and a factorized 3D convolutional neural network. The capacity of these models to generalize when exposed to perturbations in melt pool image data is examined using data perturbation techniques grounded in real-world process scenarios. The implemented architectures demonstrate the ability to capture the spatiotemporal features of melt pool image sequences. However, among these models, only the Kinetics400 pre-trained SlowFast network, categorized as a two-stream network, exhibits robust generalization capabilities in the presence of data perturbations.